Duckboards at the Turco excavation site. The “zigzag” pattern is clearly showed of (left).
This dump was apparently the remains of ignition material from a Livens projector (right).

Nevertheless, another testpit contained two well preserved segments of trenches. In one of them, wooden duckboards were placed in perpendicular fashion, exemplifying the typical “zigzag” pattern of the trench system. The deep ploughing carried out in the field made it impossible to study the walls of the trenches, although some remains of parapet sandbags were found in the filling. An interesting discovery was the remains of a livens-projector (a dump of ignition material) (More information can be found on the web site This is a type of mortar, consisting of a launching tube and a supporting plate to launch gas grenades. They were placed in an angle of 45 degrees in batteries consisting 20 to 25 pieces. It proved to be a very effective weapon (SAUNDERS 2000, p. 152-156). We learned from the owner of the field that he had found three launching tubes while ploughing a couple of years before (The tubes are preserved by the owner, G. Verhaeghe. We were allowed to examine them).